Immune system development in infants is closely tied to gastrointestinal maturation. The immunological factors found in breast milk are key instigators in the maturation of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as the gut-associated and systemic immune systems. Microflora such as Bifidobacterium have been identified in studies of infant fecal composition in association with maternal breast milk composition. Maternal breast milk Bifidobacterial counts dramatically impacted the infants’ fecal Bifidobacterium levels, demonstrating that breast milk is a powerful modifier of infantile gastrointestinal microflora and thus immune status. Breast milk–fed infants showed high levels of fecal calprotectin, indicating a low level of gastrointestinal inflammation. The excessive inflammation seen in NEC is less severe with a lower incidence when infants are given their mothers breast milk, in part due to the influence breast milk has on the intestinal flora. Recent research shows that the mucosal microflora acquired in early infancy determines the production of mucosal inflammation and the consequent development of mucosal disease, autoimmunity, and allergic disorders later in life. The non-absorbed milk oligosaccharides found in breast milk block attachment of microbes to the infant’s gastrointestinal mucosal membranes, thus preventing infections.Although oligosaccharides are major components of breast milk, the milk is also rich in other glycans, including glycoproteins, mucins, glycosaminoglycans, and glycolipids. Glycans protect the infant primarily by inhibiting pathogens’ binding to their host cell’s target ligands. At the same time, human milk oligosaccharides strongly attenuate inflammatory processes in the intestinal mucosa. Undigested glycans stimulate colonization by probiotic organisms through a prebiotic effect, modulating mucosal immunity and protecting against pathogens. Interactions between breast milk glycans, intestinal microflora, and intestinal mucosal surface glycans assist in the development of the innate mucosal immunity, protecting infants from infection and autoimmune inflammatory bowel diseases.

Mexican online pharmacy
There is a need for more extensive research into the development of the immune system in infants so that we have a more complete understanding of how to target and prevent immune disorders. Our current understanding points to 4 main areas in the ontogeny of the infant’s immune system as potential early intervention points for the prevention of immune disorders. First, nutritional support that aids in the prevention of immune disorders must be provided for infants. Second, the infant requires Th1 support so that he has protection from infections and the inflammatory damage they can incite. Third, immune tolerance and anti-inflammatory measures must be encouraged so inflammatory reactions and the corresponding immune disorders can be prevented. Fourth, the gastrointestinal health of the infant plays such a foundational role in immune status that it must be supported as well. The research demonstrates how breast milk targets all 4 of these areas and has the potential to be a powerful tool in the prevention of immune disorders. More research is necessary to confirm breast milk as a preventative treatment for asthma, allergies, and autoimmune disorders, but the current evidence is promising.